Hands On Lab: Joints and Muscles (7 Activities) Submission instructions · Type your answers and copy all pictures

Hands On Lab: Joints and Muscles (7 Activities)

Submission instructions

· Type your answers and copy all pictures directly into this Word document. Submit it via the blackboard submission link in Word format (docx).

Introduction:

In this lab, we will be focusing on learning how to ID the skeletal muscles that we will learn the physiology of in the lecture portion of the class. When you are going through these activities, think about your muscles! How does your arm move? What muscles are doing the most work when going up a flight of stairs, smiling, or turning your head to one side? Also consider where they are attached. Its an engineering marvel! Where muscles attach allow for that movement. Remember, the human body has hundreds of muscles, but for this lab you are responsible for learning the ones listed on the
Module 3 Lab Study Objectives.

We also will be looking at joints and their role in movement. Joints are also known as articulations: where bones come together. We will look at 3 categories of joints (classified structurally), cartilaginous, fibrous, and synovial. We’ll then look at some movements. Again, use your own body as a tool when learning these joints. For example, look at your hand. Does the tip of your pointer finger have the same range of motion as the base of that same finger? Now bend your arm at the elbow. Pay attention to the ways that you can move your arm specifically at that elbow joint.

Watch These:

This
Crash Course video on joints (opens in new window: 9min:22sec) goes into a good bit of detail and will supplement lab and lecture material for joints.

Another video to watch if you feel you need more visuals with joints
is this one that is designed for artists who need to draw the human body (Link opens in new window:10 min:50sec). This video goes into just the synovial joints but has great (very clear) visuals of how those joints work. If there is one synovial joint you don’t feel 100% clear on, then just scroll through this video to find it and take a look at the animation they provide for that specific joint.

Activity 1: Cartilaginous and Fibrous Joints (#1-9)

In activities 1 & 2, we’re going to look at joints classified structurally (based on major connective tissue type that binds bones).

1. What immovable cartilaginous joints would be found in children, but not in adults?

Classify the following as cartilaginous
OR fibrous
. If cartilaginous, also add the type of cartilage associated with that type of joint.

2. Gomphosis (ex: tooth socket) _______________

3. Suture (Ex: sagittal suture)___________

4. Synchondrosis (Ex: sternocostal)_____________

5. Symphysis (Ex: intervertebral discs)____________

6. Syndesmosis (Ex: tibiofibular joint)_________

7. Give one example of a specific cartilaginous joint in the body NOT mentioned above.

Fibrous and cartilaginous joint are also classified by their movements/functionality.

8. TRUE or FALSE: A joint classified as a synarthrosis is immovable

9. How would you describe a joint classified as amphiarthrosis?

Activity 2: Synovial Joints (#10-24)

Using the following diagram, label each type of synovial joint (#10-15):

10: A=

11: B=

12: C=

13: D=

14: E=

15: F=

List the 6 types of synovial joints classified by movement (from above) and give a
SPECIFIC example of each (the finger is not specific enough):

Joint

Example

Ex: Name of joint type

Where you find this joint/its name: elbow, atlantoaxial, etc

16.

17.

18.

19.

20.

21.

Using the following diagram, state which type of synovial joint is represented in each picture: (#22-24)

22:A=

23:B=

24:C=

Activity 3: Actions at Joints
(#25-33)

Movements and knowing the correct use of these terms is important for all areas of healthcare. Have you ever had to put a patient in a prone position? Or had to complete a physical therapy exercise regimen to recover from an injury?

25-30: For this activity, choose 3 of the following pairs of movements and take pictures of yourself demonstrating them.
Each picture must be labeled with the movement for credit (6 labeled pictures total).

5

Flexion/ Extension

Abduction/Adduction

Elevation/Depression

Protraction/Retraction

Inversion/Eversion

Supination/Pronation

Using the following diagram, label the movement represented (#31-33):

31: A=

32: B=

33: C=


Activity 4: Virtual Muscle Lab

The virtual axial skeleton laboratory will teach the bones of this division and the major bone markings.


Virtual Muscle Lab (opens new window)

Click on the lab and go through all or the sections. Please see the
Module 3 Lab Study Objectives for all of the muscles you are responsible for. You are not required to learn any muscles in the virtual lab that are not on this list.

When looking at the diagrams, pay special attention to the ‘view’ that is noted (anterior/posterior etc), this will aid you in identifying the muscles.

Activity 5: Facial Muscles (#34-41)

Identify the Facial Muscles (A-H). Each letter will only be used once.

34. Masseter

35. Orbicularis oculi

36. Buccinator

37. Platysma

38. Zygomaticus minor

39. Temporalis

40. Orbicularis oris

41. Zygomaticus major

Activity 6: Identifying Major Muscles (#42-63)

Identify the Major Muscles (A-V). Each letter will only be used once.

42. Sternocleidomastoid

43. External oblique

44. Gluteus medius

45. Brachioradialis

46. Quadriceps femoris

47. Rectus abdominis

48. Triceps brachii

49. Gastrocnemius

50. Pectoralis major

51. Infraspinatus

52. Trapezius

53. Biceps brachii

54. Latissimus dorsi

55. Soleus

56. Gluteus maximus

57. Hamstrings

58. Deltoid

59. Teres major

60. Gracilis

61. Serratus anterior

62. Sartorius

63. Tibialis anterior

Activity 7: Arm and Leg Muscles (#64-79)

64. List all the muscles that compose the quadriceps femoris (All must be listed for credit).

65. List all the muscles that compose the hamstrings (All must be listed for credit).

Identify the arm muscles (A-E). Each letter will only be used once.
Hint: Take note of where features are such as the elbow and position of the clavicle and scapula.

66. Brachioradialis

67. Triceps brachii

68. Brachialis

69. Deltoid

70. Biceps brachii

Identify the leg muscles (A-I). Each letter will only be used once.
Hint: Take note of the position of the pelvis/femur and whether you are looking at the anterior or posterior view of the leg.

71. Rectus femoris

72. Biceps femoris

73. Tensor fascia latae

74. Semitendinosus

75. Gracilis

76. Vastus lateralis

77. Sartorius

78. Vastus medialis

79. Semimembranosus

*All images in this lab are copyright of McGraw-Hill

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